Class Reference

Admin Site

class two_factor.admin.AdminSiteOTPRequired(name='admin')

AdminSite enforcing OTP verified staff users.

class two_factor.admin.AdminSiteOTPRequiredMixin

Mixin for enforcing OTP verified staff users.

Custom admin views should either be wrapped using admin_view() or use has_permission() in order to secure those views.


django_otp.decorators.otp_required(view=None, redirect_field_name='next', login_url=None, if_configured=False)

Similar to login_required(), but requires the user to be verified. By default, this redirects users to OTP_LOGIN_URL.

Parameters:if_configured (bool) – If True, an authenticated user with no confirmed OTP devices will be allowed. Default is False.

Converts a function based decorator into a class based decorator usable on class based Views.

Can’t subclass the View as it breaks inheritance (super in particular), so we monkey-patch instead.



class two_factor.plugins.phonenumber.models.PhoneDevice(*args, **kwargs)

Model with phone number and token seed linked to a user.

class django_otp.plugins.otp_static.models.StaticDevice(*args, **kwargs)

A static Device simply consists of random tokens shared by the database and the user.

These are frequently used as emergency tokens in case a user’s normal device is lost or unavailable. They can be consumed in any order; each token will be removed from the database as soon as it is used.

This model has no fields of its own, but serves as a container for StaticToken objects.


The RelatedManager for our tokens.

class django_otp.plugins.otp_static.models.StaticToken(*args, **kwargs)

A single token belonging to a StaticDevice.


ForeignKey: A foreign key to StaticDevice.


CharField: A random string up to 16 characters.

class django_otp.plugins.otp_totp.models.TOTPDevice(*args, **kwargs)

A generic TOTP Device. The model fields mostly correspond to the arguments to django_otp.oath.totp(). They all have sensible defaults, including the key, which is randomly generated.


CharField: A hex-encoded secret key of up to 40 bytes. (Default: 20 random bytes)


PositiveSmallIntegerField: The time step in seconds. (Default: 30)


BigIntegerField: The Unix time at which to begin counting steps. (Default: 0)


PositiveSmallIntegerField: The number of digits to expect in a token (6 or 8). (Default: 6)


PositiveSmallIntegerField: The number of time steps in the past or future to allow. For example, if this is 1, we’ll accept any of three tokens: the current one, the previous one, and the next one. (Default: 1)


SmallIntegerField: The number of time steps the prover is known to deviate from our clock. If OTP_TOTP_SYNC is True, we’ll update this any time we match a token that is not the current one. (Default: 0)


BigIntegerField: The time step of the last verified token. To avoid verifying the same token twice, this will be updated on each successful verification. Only tokens at a higher time step will be verified subsequently. (Default: -1)


class django_otp.middleware.OTPMiddleware(get_response=None)

This must be installed after AuthenticationMiddleware and performs an analogous function. Just as AuthenticationMiddleware populates request.user based on session data, OTPMiddleware populates request.user.otp_device to the Device object that has verified the user, or None if the user has not been verified. As a convenience, this also installs user.is_verified(), which returns True if user.otp_device is not None.



Sent when a user is verified against a OTP device. Provides the following arguments:

The class sending the signal ('two_factor.views.core').
The user that was verified.
The OTP device that was used.
The HttpRequest in which the user was verified.

Template Tags


Generates an actionable text for a PhoneDevice.


  • Send text message to +31 * ******58
  • Call number +31 * ******58

Formats a phone number in international notation. :param number: str or phonenumber object :return: str


Masks a phone number, only first 3 and last 2 digits visible.


  • +31 * ******58
Parameters:number – str or phonenumber object


class two_factor.views.LoginView(**kwargs)

View for handling the login process, including OTP verification.

The login process is composed like a wizard. The first step asks for the user’s credentials. If the credentials are correct, the wizard proceeds to the OTP verification step. If the user has a default OTP device configured, that device is asked to generate a token (send sms / call phone) and the user is asked to provide the generated token. The backup devices are also listed, allowing the user to select a backup device for verification.

class two_factor.views.SetupView(**kwargs)

View for handling OTP setup using a wizard.

The first step of the wizard shows an introduction text, explaining how OTP works and why it should be enabled. The user has to select the verification method (generator / call / sms) in the second step. Depending on the method selected, the third step configures the device. For the generator method, a QR code is shown which can be scanned using a mobile phone app and the user is asked to provide a generated token. For call and sms methods, the user provides the phone number which is then validated in the final step.

class two_factor.views.SetupCompleteView(**kwargs)

View congratulation the user when OTP setup has completed.

class two_factor.views.BackupTokensView(**kwargs)

View for listing and generating backup tokens.

A user can generate a number of static backup tokens. When the user loses its phone, these backup tokens can be used for verification. These backup tokens should be stored in a safe location; either in a safe or underneath a pillow ;-).

class two_factor.views.ProfileView(**kwargs)

View used by users for managing two-factor configuration.

This view shows whether two-factor has been configured for the user’s account. If two-factor is enabled, it also lists the primary verification method and backup verification methods.

class two_factor.views.DisableView(**kwargs)

View for disabling two-factor for a user’s account.

class two_factor.plugins.phonenumber.views.PhoneSetupView(**kwargs)

View for configuring a phone number for receiving tokens.

A user can have multiple backup PhoneDevice for receiving OTP tokens. If the primary phone number is not available, as the battery might have drained or the phone is lost, these backup phone numbers can be used for verification.

class two_factor.plugins.phonenumber.views.PhoneDeleteView(**kwargs)

View for removing a phone number used for verification.

View Mixins

class two_factor.views.mixins.OTPRequiredMixin

View mixin which verifies that the user logged in using OTP.


This mixin should be the left-most base class.


Returns login url to redirect to.


Returns verification url to redirect to.

login_url = None

If raise_anonymous is set to False, this defines where the user will be redirected to. Defaults to two_factor:login.

raise_anonymous = False

Whether to raise PermissionDenied if the user isn’t logged in.

raise_unverified = False

Whether to raise PermissionDenied if the user isn’t verified.

redirect_field_name = 'next'

URL query name to use for providing the destination URL.

verification_url = None

If raise_unverified is set to False, this defines where the user will be redirected to. If set to None, an explanation will be shown to the user on why access was denied.